Raafat M A El-Bakery is currently working at Alexandria University, Egypt.
This paper describes an alternative method to study and teach the gross anatomy to undergraduate and postgraduate students using air-drying method. This study depend on the air-drying pump machine (compressor) to preserve the hallow organs of different animals by air-drying method, then the preserved hallow organs are injected by expanding foam into their lumen followed by varnishing their external surface to protect the preserved hallow organs from the insects damage. This method of preservation is suitable for development country as it is very cheaper in preparation, simple to perform, carried out at room temperature (37° C-40° C), not need special equipments to perform and the produced specimens have many advantages as the normal anatomical form is maintained durable, very light in its weight, not toxic in handling, resist the bad handling and the deterioration by fungi or bacteria and all structures very clear on the preserved organs and also the preserved specimen can live for many years without any changes.
Deborah Hynes is a PhD student in Agri-Food and Bioscience Institute (AFBI), Hillsborough, UK. She has completed her first degree program in Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Ireland. She is a member of the ruminant nutrition unit of AFBI, headed by Professor Tianhai Yan. Prior to her PhD, she gained experience as a Scientific Officer in AFBI, Hillsborough.
Improved nitrogen use efficiency is essential to reduce production costs and nitrogen outputs in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crude protein content of concentrates on nitrogen utilization. Twelve multiparous dairy cows grouped based on milk yield, live weight, lactation stage and milk fat and protein (CP) contents which were 35±3.7 kg/d, 544±45 kg, 119±20.5 days in milk, 37.5±2.81 g/kg, 32.5±2.31 g/kg respectively were used. Each group was fed fresh cut perennial rye grass at 65% dry matter (DM) intake and concentrates at 35% DM intake. Records of feed intake and total outputs in feces and urine were performed. Data were analyzed by residual maximum likelihood analysis using breed (pure Holstein, Holstein crossbreds) and concentrate type (low CP, 13% DM; medium CP, 15% DM; high CP, 17% DM) as fixed factors and cow as random factor. The effect of breed or concentrate type was not significant on milk yield although Holstein cows had higher yield than Holstein crossbreds when both groups fed medium CP diets. Overall, low CP concentrate did not affect milk yield but decreased urinary N output by 30 g/d (P=0.016). The effect of breed or concentrate type was also non-significant on milk urea nitrogen contents and fecal N outputs. This study highlights that supplementing pasture-based diets with CP levels as low as 13% DM, may sustain performance while economically improving productivity and show positive environmental implications by reducing N outputs in the environment.