Virginia Aida has completed her Bachelor of Arts & Science in Biology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). She is currently pursuing her Master of Science in Biology at UAB studying traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury in both rodent and porcine models. In the past, she developed a training regimen designed to effectively acclimate pigs into the laboratory setting and to attenuate the pigs’ stress levels during the study. In the near future, she hopes to attain her Doctor of Veterinarian Medicine and study animal behavior and ecosystem medicine.
Porcine models are increasingly being utilized within the scientific setting due to their similarity to humans in many aspects of anatomy and biochemical processes. Unfortunately, when considering behavioral training, there is little information regarding appropriate training of pigs prior to inclusion within a scientific investigation. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to develop a method of porcine behavior training for the use of pigs within a scientific research setting. The described methods are based on the behavioral observations of Yucatan miniature pigs and the need to evaluate porcine behaviors over time as an experimental endpoint. The developed regime describes a step-wise approach to training pigs with defined milestones and recommended time frames. Sex differences in training and behavior were also assessed, given that sex differences in behavior and training have been observed across species. This study found that female pigs more consistently and successfully perform trained behaviors, despite males learning the tasks at a faster rate. Our findings and developed methodology can serve as a foundation to guide any scientific study in which pigs are routinely required to perform behavioral tasks such as walking, either leashed or unleashed, to a specific target.
Ayobami Adeyemo has completed his first degree from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Nigeria. He is a well committed and devoted Young Researcher with a vast experience in Animal and Poultry Science. He is currently pursuing MSc at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa and his interest is in animal health with the aim of resolving various distressing issues associated to animal health, exploring wide range of possibilities to reducing or eradicating parasites in livestock animal.
Endo-parasitic diseases, caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the major causes of animal health deterioration and reduced productivity. Control of GIN solely relies on the use of synthetic therapy, which is becoming less effective and unacceptable, due to animals developing resistance as a result of overuse and the possibility of chemical residues finding their way into the human food chain. Few studies, if any, have evaluated the nutritional possibilities of reducing parasite burden which gaps are associated to cost and unavailability of feed in some regions. Little information, if any, is available on the biological control of GIN using various medicinal plant species that are readily available. Some in-vitro studies has proven that some plant species may be effective on GIN and few examples are Allium sativum, Vernonia amygdalina, Phytolacca dodecandra, Rhoicissus tridentate and Zingiber officinale. This paper will review the available information on some plant species with wide usefulness in controlling GIN, gaps, conclusion and recommendation on more effective model of administration.